C is for Chulalongkorn

by Kon Cze Yan

Image credit: Dennis Ong

I write about King Chulalongkorn with some trepidation. Thailand’s Lese-Majeste Law prosecutes for slights against both living and dead royals. I do want to visit Thailand again after the pandemic!

Chulalongkorn appears in Muzium Negara in the old photograph below.

This photograph was taken in June 1905 during the King’s visit to Kelantan. He stands in the centre, wearing white, with his sons on his right. To his left is the ruler of Kelantan, Raja Long Senik, who adopted the title Sultan Muhammad IV in 1911. H.W. Thomson, the Deputy Resident Commissioner, can be seen on the right-hand side of the photograph. They are posing in front of the Siamese Residency, home of W. A. Graham the Siamese Resident Commissioner. With the 1902 Siamese-Kelantan Treaty, although Siam had suzerainty over Kelantan, Siam had to appoint a British national as the Resident Adviser and Commissioner to Kelantan.

Chulalongkorn has the epithet “Phra Piya Maharat”, the Great Beloved King. He is Rama V, 5th monarch of the reigning Chakri dynasty of Siam (now Thailand). The Chakri dynasty has ruled since 1782. He is the great-grandfather of the current King of Thailand.

A Glimpse of Chulalongkorn’s family life

Chulalongkorn was the 9th son of King Mongkut (Rama IV), but since he was the first to be born to a royal queen, he was recognized as heir to the throne. His mother was Queen Debsirindra and she was Mongkut’s grandniece.

Chulalongkorn was only 15 years old when his father died in 1868. He succeeded the throne under the regency of Somdet Chao Phraya Si Suriyawong. Over the next 5 years, he prepared to assume duties by observing court business and by travels to British Malaya, Dutch East Indies, Burma and India.

King Mongkut & Prince Chulalongkorn. Image credit: Wikipedia

Chulalongkorn had at least five royal consorts who were his half-sisters (Mongkut’s daughters) and about 92 consorts and concubines in total. Nothing to raise your eyebrows about. Royal intermarriage used to be very prevalent in Europe and other parts of the world as well. (For Lese-Majeste reasons, note this is a statement and not a criticism!) Once when he visited Italy, he was asked by the Queen of Italy how many wives he had and his reply to her was, “Had I met you first perhaps I would have had only one.” The King of course knew how many he had because each wife was given a sum of money for personal expenses every year.

In theory, the King could make any of his wives a queen. However, in practice, his queens were the daughters of kings. They were called Somdet Phra Raja Devi. From these he promoted the mother of the Crown Prince who was the eldest son. The Crown Prince’s mother was called Somdet Phra Boroma Rajinee.

Chulalongkorn was a prolific producer of children. He had 77 children. Not as many as his father, King Mongkut, who had at least 82 children! (For Lese-Majeste reasons, note this is a statement and not a criticism!)

Saovabha Phongsri (1864-1919)
Queen Saovabha gave King Chulalongkorn 9 children; two sons would eventually become King of Siam. In 1897, she became the first female Regent of Siam when the King went on a tour of Europe. Image credit: Wikipedia
King Chulalongkorn & Queen Saovabha Phongsri with their children. The Royal family adopted Western-style attire as the monarch began to modernise the country. Image credit: Bangkok Post
King Chulalongkorn with a few of his sons at Eton College, England, in 1907. Image credit: Wikipedia

Why is Chulalongkorn one of Thailand’s most loved and revered Kings?

King Chulalongkorn is considered one of the greatest kings of Thailand. His reign was characterized by extensive social and economic reforms and development.

Chulalongkorn matured into a shrewd politician and managed to fend off very skilfully the threat of European colonialism. Large tracts of Siam were ceded to the Europeans during the period, but Thailand remains the only country in Southeast Asia to have never been colonized.

His abolition of slavery made him the Beloved Great King of all people of Siam. In the beginning of his reign, more than a third of the population were slaves.

Chulalongkorn was the first Siamese King to send the Royal Princes to be educated in Europe. He nurtured a corps of bright Western-educated royal relatives who helped him carry out reforms and to conduct diplomacy.

Dummies’ Quick Guide to What Was Happening In and Around Siam during Chulalongkorn’s Reign

In 1782, Rama I, the first king of the Chakri dynasty, founded a new capital city across the Chao Phraya River in an area known as Rattanakosin Island, now called Bangkok.

From the middle of the 16th century, there were many Burmese-Siamese wars and repeated attacks on Siam. In the 1790s, Burma was defeated and driven out and Siam reached its greatest extent around 1809.

Left: Greatest extent of Rattanakosin’s orbit (c. 1809). Image credit: Wikipedia
Right: Territorial cessation of Siamese protectorates in 19th to 20th centuries. Purple to France. Red to Britain. Image credit: Wikipedia

Two kings, Mongkut and Chulalongkorn, witnessed the expansion of both France and Britain to increase their colonial territories in Southeast Asia and encircle Siam. From the west, the British “conquered” India (mid-18th century), Burma (1826-1885) and Malaya (1874), and from the east, the French “conquered” Vietnam (1859), Cambodia (1863) and Laos (1893).

The French takeover of Cambodia and Vietnam led to keen French interest in the Lao territories. They saw (wrongly) the Mekong as a potentially major trade route with China. They feared Thai interests in the territories would be championed by their imperial rival, Britain (also wrong!). The loss of Laos to France in 1893 was a prime example of gunboat diplomacy practiced by western powers. With French gunboats menacing Bangkok, Siam reluctantly signed the Franco-Siamese treaty, which transferred to the French Lao territories east of the Mekong.

After the Franco-Siamese War of 1893, King Chulalongkorn realised the threat of western colonial powers, and accelerated extensive reforms in the administration, military, economy and society of Siam.

In 1896, British and French concluded the Anglo-French Declaration, which made a border between their colonies, with Siam defined as a buffer state. The negotiations for this started around 1887 and the exceedingly subtle and active role that Siamese diplomats played must be appreciated.

This was quickly followed by the Anglo-Siamese Secret Convention 1897 whereby, in return for a Siamese undertaking not to grant any concession or cede any part of the Malay Peninsula without prior British approval, Britain pledged itself to come to the defence of Siamese rights in that region if they were threatened by any third power.

The Entente Cordiale of 8 April 1904 ended the rivalry between Great Britain and France over Siam. As far as Siam was concerned, what the two Powers did in 1904 was nothing more than a reaffirmation of their previous agreement of 1896.

The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 defined the modern border between Siam and British Malaya. The treaty stated that Siam transfer all rights of suzerainty over its four Malay dependencies – Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis – to Britain. In return, Britain agreed to relinquish its extraterritorial rights over British subjects in Siam. Britain also agreed to abrogate the 1897 Secret Convention and loan Siam £4 million for the construction of a railway to the Malay Peninsula.

When King Chulalongkorn died in 1910, Siam had achieved the borders of today’s Thailand. In 1910, he was peacefully succeeded by his son Vajiravudh, who reigned as Rama VI.

Was Anna Leonowans real?

My first memory of the King of Siam was from the musical “The King & I”. The source material for this musical was a 1944 novel “Anna and the King of Siam” by Margaret Landon, a missionary to Thailand. Anna Leonowans herself did write her own commercially successful memoirs, “The English Governess at the Siamese Court” (1870) and “The Romance of the Harem”(1873), to which King Chulalongkorn responded with the statement that she “has supplied by her invention that which is deficient in her memory.”

Anna Leonowans, c. 1862 Image credit: Wikipedia

Many movie and musical versions have been made of Anna’s story – all highly sensationalized and fictionalized. One was even filmed in Malaysia – “Anna & the King” (1999) starring Jodie Foster & Chow Yun Fat. These movies are banned in Thailand and considered to be lèse majesté because of their disrespectful treatment of King Mongkut.

A World Without A Sun

King Chulalongkorn died in 1910 of kidney disease. He was nursed by Queen Saovabha and his favourites. Princess Chongchitra said, ”It was very sad in the Palace after King Chulalongkorn’s death because his successor was unmarried and would not live Inside. So for us Inside, it was like a world without a sun. Life was all monotony. No King’s meals to prepare; nothing to do for him. We, who had talked about what the King did, what he said, what he liked and what he disliked, now had nothing to talk about.”

Royal funeral ceremony 1911. Image credit: Wikipedia

References

Aldrich, Robert (Ed.). (2007). The Age of Empires. Thames & Hudson.

Chandran Jeshurun. (1970). The Anglo-French Declaration of January 1896 and the Independence of Siam by Chandran Jeshurun.  Amended version of a paper presented to the Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University. http://www.siamese-heritage.org/jsspdf/1961/JSS_058_2h_Jeshurun_AngloFrenchDeclarationJanuary1896.pdf

Chan Su-ming. (1965). Kelantan and Trengganu, 1909-1939. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(1), 159-198.

Chulalongkorn: king of Siam. Encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Chulalongkorn

Chulalongkorn. (2021, 3 July). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chulalongkorn&action=history

Church, Peter (Ed.). (2017). A Short History of South-East Asia. John Wiley & Sons.

Life in the grand palace: the story of Princess Chongchitra. (2012, January 3). Bangkok Post. https://www.bangkokpost.com/learning/advanced/273517/life-in-the-grand-palace

Mendonça, Amanda Francesca. (2018, June 27). The Real Story Of Anna Leonowens That Inspired ‘The King And I’. bookmyshow. https://in.bookmyshow.com/buzz/blog/Events/the-real-story-that-inspired-the-king-and-i

Moore, Wendy Khadijah. (2007). Malaysia: A Pictorial History 1400 – 2004. Editions Didier Millet.

Nik Mohd bin Nik Mohd Salleh. (2011). Kelantan Sultanate. In Ahmad Sarji bin Abdul Hamid (Chairman, Editorial Board), Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Vol 16 – The Rulers of Malaysia (pp. 97-107). Editions Didier Millet.

Royal Thai Embassy, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Author: Museum Volunteers, JMM

Museum Volunteers, JMM Taking the Mystery out of History

One thought on “C is for Chulalongkorn”

  1. Thank you for your informative essay! Chulalongkorn is a fascinating monarch. I am sure your respectful and charming piece will not be viewed as lèse-majesté!

Leave a Reply to Rose Gan Cancel reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: