Three Museums

by Eric Lim

The first quarter of 2019 was very eventful for me. I made two overseas trips, the first to Guangzhou, China, in January followed by an 18-day sojourn to the North Island of New Zealand, between February and March. Taking these excellent opportunities, I visited the local museums and I would like to share my experiences with you.

1. Archaeological Site Museum of Nanyue Palace in Guangzhou

The history of Guangzhou started more than 2,000 years ago. Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the Qin Empire succeeded in unifying the Lingnan Region, which comprised 3 prefectures namely Nanhai, Guilin and Xiang.

The Qin dynasty ended when military captains staged revolts causing great upheavals in the Central Plains of China. Zhao Tuo took over and established the Nanyue Kingdom with Panyu (original name of Guangzhou) as its capital. The Nanyue Kingdom was ruled successively by 5 kings and endured 93 years until it was obliterated by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty in 111 BC. Since then, Guangzhou was further developed by another 10 cultural strata, right up to the Republic of China.

The museum sits between shops fronting the Beijing Road and dwellings on the other side, with the main entrance located at Zhongshan 4th Road. As the name suggests, the focus is on the historic site of the palace and garden of the Nanyue Kingdom. The royal garden consists of a large stone pond and a crooked stone brook. The latter was discovered in 1997 and it meanders from the north to south, a distance of 160 metres. It is the earliest and the best-preserved royal garden discovered so far in China.

The palace of the Nanyue Kingdom

During the excavation of the pond, a large quantity of the remains of turtles was found at the bottom, implying the animals might have been kept as pets in the royal garden. Chinese authorities also found that stone structures used in the construction of the royal garden were built with materials similar to those of Western stone structures, thus testifying to the meeting of East and West in Guangzhou in ancient times.

Exchanges between the Chinese and Western cultures

Besides the site of the palace and garden of the Nanyue Kingdom, there is also the palace site of the Nanhan Kingdom, which includes the Nanhan courtyard paved with fabulous butterfly peony square bricks. At the exhibition building for Guangzhou’s ancient wells, visitors can see over 500 wells built during the different dynasties. During excavations at this site, many valuable artefacts were found. Over 100 pottery jars were unearthed from the wells constructed by the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-20 BCE).

(Left) Well of Eastern Han Dynasty 25-220 BC (Right) Well of Qing Dynasty 1644 – 1911

Towards the end of 2004, hundreds of inscribed wooden slips were excavated from the wells built during the Nanyue Kingdom. These are the very first of such artefacts ever discovered in the region that provide great value for academic research.

There is no admission fee to visit the museum but visitors must get tickets at the main entrance by showing personal ID cards or, in the case of foreigners, by showing passports.

2. Auckland War Memorial Museum in Auckland

The Auckland Domain is Auckland’s oldest park and it is located just outside Auckland’s CBD. This spacious 75 hectares park is also one of the largest parks in the city and it has been developed around the cone of the extinct Pukekawa volcano. Sitting proudly atop it is the Auckland War Memorial Museum.

Auckland War Memorial Museum

The museum is housed in a large neo-classical styled building and is considered as one of the finest heritage buildings. It was opened in 1929 to commemorate the loss of 18,166 New Zealanders who died in the First World War. Today, AWMM is one of the top tourist attractions. The museum is divided into 3 levels:

Ground Level – This level examines the diversity of Maori and Pacific Island cultures. It also talks about the movement of people from South East Asia to the islands in “Near Oceania” 5,000 years ago, then progressing further to the distant island groups in “Remote Oceania” such as New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa between 3,500 – 3,000 years ago. By then, these people were known as the Lapita people, the immediate ancestors of the Polynesians. Then after “The Long Pause”, a period of over 1,000 years, they started sailing again after the development of larger ocean-going canoes reaching as far North as the Hawaiian islands and as far South as Aotearoa New Zealand 800 years ago. It was believed that the Polynesians have sailed as far as South America and brought back kumara and gourd.

Movement of people from SEA to the Pacific Islands and New Zealand

Level One – Talks about the Natural History of New Zealand, from geological origins to its ancient flora and fauna. The Moa was the tallest bird known and the female grew as tall as 3 metres, measured in an upright standing position. This level also highlights the uniqueness of many New Zealand birds, which are flightless, large, dull or dark in colour and slow breeders. Of course, there is mention of the Kiwi, national pride of New Zealand.

The Moa

Level Two – This gallery is named Scars on the Heart. It is a war memorial centered mainly on the First and Second World Wars. There is also a section that talks about Kiwis being called into action in Asia, namely in Malaya, Borneo and Vietnam.

The first New Zealanders that fought in Asia were based at the Changi Air Base in Singapore from 1949 to 1951, during the time of the Malayan Emergency, and they remained in the country until 1989. Their engagement grew larger during the time of the Confrontation over Borneo in 1964. In the 1960’s, pressured by the American government, New Zealand committed resources to the Vietnam War.

We were again given the spotlight, this time on the stained glass ceiling above the main foyer, which depicts the Coat of Arms of all British Dominions and Colonies during the First World War. The Coat of Arms of Malaya and Straits Settlements are proudly displayed on this glass ceiling.

Coat of Arms of Malaya and Straits Settlements on glass ceiling (extreme left and second left)

A portrait of Sir Edmund Hillary, who was born in Auckland, is also on display. On 29 May 1953, Sir Edmund and his Sherpa guide, Tenzing Norgay, became the first climbers to reach the peak of Mount Everest.

The general admission fee to this museum is NZ $25.00 and the highlights guided tour is an additional NZ $15.00.

3. Navy Museum in Devonport

Still in Auckland, I also visited the Navy Museum in the village of Devonport. Here, visitors can learn about New Zealand’s contribution at sea in the major conflicts of the 20th century and as well as during peace-time. Again, the Malayan Emergency and Confrontation are highlighted. The museum is open seven days a week, 10.00 am to 5.00 pm and admission is free.

Malaysian Medals awarded to British Commonwealth personnels who served during the Malayan Emergency and Confrontation

Al-Tibb: Healing Traditions

The exhibition at the Islamic Arts Museum, Malaysia (IAMM) titled ‘Al-Tibb: Healing Traditions in Islamic Medical Manuscripts’ has been extended until end of January this year. If you were planning a visit to IAMM, this month would be a good time to go.

‘Tibb’ is the Arabic word for medicine and this exhibition displays IAMM’s collections of manuscripts and objects related to the science of medicine in the Islamic world. The collections are from across the Islamic world and cover a number of areas including prophetic medicine, pharmacy and dietetics, bimaristan (hospital), anatomy, Malay medicine, and traditional medicine.

Knowledge of healing from around the Malay Archipelago is encapsulated in a number Kitab Tibb Melayu, the first of which was written in 1638 CE by Sheik Nuruddin al-Raniri, an ulama in the Aceh Sultanate. IAMM has a number of Kitab Tibb in its collection; samples from a few pieces are shown below.

A 19th century Kitab Tibb Melayu from the Malay Peninsula written in Jawi script. This manuscript is dedicated to the tropical disease puru (yaw), a disease that infects the skin, bones, and joints leaving scars and deformities. It was widespread in the Malay Archipelago and this manuscript provides information on its development, symptoms, and treatment.

The 2-page spread in the photograph provide illustrations of the human body labelled with the various types of puru at the different locations on the body. The manuscript also provides illustrations on the shapes of pustule clusters. For example, the keri getah (sickle used in cutting rubber trees) shaped cluster appears between 1-7 days while the buaya laut (sea crocodile) shaped cluster would indicate the person has been infected for 15 days.
This Kitab Tibb is written on the leaves of the nipa palm. As can be seen in the photograph, the leaves are stitched together. The page on the left is the colophon page, which attributes the authorship of the book to Haji Abdullah bin Wan who completed the work in May 1936 CE. The treatise describes herbal remedies for a large number of common maladies from sore throat to snake bites and to tuberculosis. Some treatments prescribed for new mothers continue to be practised today, for example bertangas, a herbal steam bath. The herbs used in the remedies were easily obtained locally.
This medical treatise from the Malay Peninsula (19th century CE) is a training guide on becoming a bomoh (medicine man). It includes knowledge on obtaining assistance from the Rijal al-Ghaib (invisible beings), traditional healing ceremonies, and predicting the patient’s future well-being though calculations using the Lawh al-Hayat (Board of Life) and Lawh al-Mamat (Board of Death). It also includes treatment for various diseases.

The page in the photograph contains an illustration of the front (right) and back (left) of a human body. Puru (yaw) clusters are marked on the right image while the puru names are labelled on the left image. The puru on the right foot is named Gajah Mata (Elephant Eye), the right knee Anjing Basah (Wet Dog), and right shoulder is Batu Tengah Laut (Stone in Middle of Ocean). The inclusion of this page shows the prevalence of this disease and the effort spent in documenting it.
A Kitab Tibb from Patani, dated to either 1786 CE or 1883 CE. It is written on 12 pieces of wood tied together with white thread. This medical treatise describes remedies for a number of skin diseases, vascular diseases, and diabetes. The remedies make use of plants, especially their leaves and roots. Cautionary advice to stop taking the medication if headaches occur is included. Dietary advice is also given – for example a diabetic patient is advised not be consume certain types of meat and seafood.
A Kitab Ramalan (Book on Divination) from the Malay Peninsula dated to the 19th century CE. It describes a number of different divination methods to determine the auspicious and inauspicious start dates for a wide range of activities, for example the right time to prepare medicine, build a house, make a boat, and travel.

The left page in the photograph is a guideline for building houses. The right page has an illustration of the Naga Hari (Daily Rotating Naga). This serpent moves across the cardinal directions (N, S, E, W) on different days. Another serpent (not shown in the photograph) known as the Naga Tahun (Yearly Rotating Naga) moves across the cardinal directions every three months.


Harun Mat Piah (2018) ‘The Malay Knowledge of Healing’, in Lucien de Guise (editor) Al-Tibb: Healing Traditions in Islamic Medical Manuscripts, Kuala Lumpur: IAMM.

‘Amek Gambar’ Exhibition

@ Peranakan Museum, Singapore

by Lim Ee Lin

After a lovely tour of the permanent galleries by volunteer docent Marjon de Winter and visiting the various other parts of the museum, I just had enough time for a whirlwind walk through the Amek Gambar exhibition. According to the write up, it “presents over a century of photographs, tracing the emergence, adoption and evolution of photography in Southeast Asia.”

I was fortunate enough to catch the tail end of a private, informal tour and this experience truly drove home the point that museum docents play an important role in helping visitors on their journey of discovery. For me, having the dots connected, deepened my appreciation of the images on display and the insight they afforded into the world of the Peranakans. More so, when the guide has first-hand knowledge on the subjects of the photographs and shares a bit a local gossip here and there!

The photographs range from the earliest photo of Singapore to crowd sourced digital images – capturing people, places and events to tell a story of the scene captured. A majority of photographs were donated by Mr and Mrs Lee Kip Lee. The tools of the trade – cameras, negatives, photo albums – are also given prominence. Visitors are given the opportunity to see the photographs as they would have been kept, used or displayed in their time – framed for hanging or displayed on table tops, in albums, within official documents as well as with their negatives, transparencies or slides.

Mr. Lee Kip Lee

Camera wall

Walking through the exhibition, you can also see the evolution from sepia to black and white; from colour prints to colour painted photographs.  The change in photography techniques is paralleled by the variety of ways the Peranakans were captured by Western and Asian photographers as well as how they chose to depict/capture themselves.

With the portraits, you get to see the poses evolve from the formal pose to the more casual; locations shift from the studio to a formal setting in the subject’s home and later to a more casual outdoor setting. In some of the early photos, the costumes range from formal Peranakan wear to western costume to fashion of the day.

Oei Tiong Nam

Herbert Lim

The use of camera “tricks” or creative development of the print from more than one negative appeared to be popular innovations. I rather enjoyed these photos that were in the exhibition. The gentleman in the photograph below, taken in Java in the 1930s, decided to portray himself in 3 poses.

A baba in three poses

The following photo that was taken in Ipoh in the 1920s features a woman in both traditional women’s wear as well as in the male colonial costume complete with cane and pith helmet! What were they trying to portray of themselves?

Same woman, in two different poses

It appears cross dressing does not seem to be an issue with the Peranakans. The guide mentioned that these pictures were mainly for the promotion of a theatre show but who knows if they also are a manifestion of the baba’s interest in cross dressing! The photo of the baba in a kebaya shows him in impeccable form – reminding me of my grandmother who always said that it is important to ensure that one must always be properly turned out and present one’s best angle in pictures.

Baba in heels

Baba in a sarong kebaya

Given a chance, I would revisit Amek Gambar and spend more time going through the photos. They presented a people and culture that were familiar to me yet offered a refreshing at look the Peranakans.

Amek Gambar – Taking Pictures: Peranakans and Photography runs until 3 February 2019.

A Visit to the National Museum of Singapore

by Ching Yook Ling and Mariko Maruyama

After a chatty and delicious lunch at Equilibrium Restaurant Capitol Plaza, a group of us museum volunteers made our way in the rain to the National Museum of Singapore. The gloomy weather could not dampen our excitement of the special tour organized for us, courtesy of the Friends of Museums. After being warmly greeted by two volunteer guides we were split into two groups; group was led by Sally McHale and she proceeded to guide us to the Singapore History Gallery at Level 1. This gallery narrated the development of our neighbouring country through 4 distinct eras: Singapura, Crown Colony, Shonan-to, and Post-War Singapore including the struggles in the road to self-government and independence, challenges of the future and the successful development of the country.

The Building

Before we entered the gallery, Sally, our guide, gave us a brief account of the building. Opened in 1887, the National Museum of Singapore, originally known as the Raffle’s Library and Museum, is the nation’s oldest museum and it celebrated its 130th anniversary in 2017.

Singapura (1299-1818)

First, we stood in front of a huge digital map the original of which was compiled by a Flemish cartographer, Abraham Ortelius, in 1570. Singapore was already on this map and known as “the land below the winds”. It was strategically located on the trade routes and was part of the Maritime Silk Road from before the British colonisers. Ships from China sailed here, traded and returned home blown by the monsoon winds. Right on cue, the image and sound effect of the seasonal monsoons came on to highlight the significance of the trade winds that were so vital for bringing the merchants to trade in the region.

It is believed the island was already a substantially inhabited trading post even earlier than the 16th century as evidenced by the 3 metres wide and 3 metres high Singapore Stone. This is part of a sandstone boulder, dated between the 10th and 14th centuries, which once stood at the mouth of the Singapore River, near where the present day Fullerton and Merlion are located. Inscription on the boulder is written in Kawi script with some Sanskrit words but it has never been fully deciphered. Even Sir Stamford Raffles made rubbings of the inscription to decode its meaning but to no avail!

The earliest written record said Singapore was called Tamasik or Temasek in the late 14th century before it was called Singapura (City of the Lion in Sanskrit). Tales from Sejarah Melayu told of the first ruler Sang Nila Utama who landed on shores white as a sheet of cloth, spotted a strange lion-like animal, took it as an auspicious sign and named the island Singapura. Exhibits of Chinese coins and fishing hooks placed on the white sands of the 14th century (dug out from the Padang in front of the National Gallery where the first settlement was believed to be) brought to life the legend of Sang Nila Utama stepping on the fine white sand.

Five kings ruled here for 100 years and the last king, Iskandar Shah, fled from Singapura to Melaka and founded the Kingdom of Melaka. Exhibits uncovered on the forbidden hills where royalties resided included gold armlet and earrings, uncovered during the building of a reservoir in the 1920s. On the clasp of the amulet is the head of Kala, a protective deity. Alas, it did not offer much protection to the last king of Singapura as Iskandar Shah had to flee the island. Other trading exhibits displayed show that even after the disappearance of the royal families, trades still flourished along the Singapore River with the existence of Temenggong of Johor Sultanate.

Crown Colony (1819-1941)

Sir Stamford Raffles, the founder of modern Singapore, was already familiar with this region before he arrived in Singapore in 1819 through his previous postings to Penang and Java. He signed a treaty with his handpicked Sultan of Johor to allow the British East India Company to establish a trade base here and, subsequently, Major William Farquhar opened the port to all nations free of duty thus making the island a springboard to be developed by 1850 into the centre of trade in South East Asia. We were also briefed on how Raffles managed to eliminate the Dutch influence from Singapore and helped to form the new Johor Sultanate in 1819. The first immigrants arrived in Singapore in 1850’s landing near today’s Lau Pa Sat Food Court (we dined there!), where many temples and mosques were built next to each other, giving diversity to the country’s culture. Many immigrants of various ethnicities (the Chinese, Indians and Malays) arrived here particularly after Singapore became a Crown Colony in 1867. Schools, churches and residential areas were built and segregated in accordance with the Jackson Plan promulgated by Raffles to bring order to the city of Singapore. Much of the Jackson Plan still exists today.

The population grew from 1,000 in the 1820’s to 60,000 in the 1850’s. The ratio of men to women was 14 to 1. Most men came alone, resulting in marriage with local women. One community arising from the interracial marriage was the Peranakan. From India, many Sepoy soldiers came in as the workforce of the British government and from 1826 onwards when it became the Straits Settlement, even convicts from the jails of Calcutta were brought in. Today Singapore’s population is composed of 70% Chinese, 15% Indians, and 15% Malays.

Stopping in front of a painting of Abu Bakar, the descendent of Temenggong–derived Sultan of Johor who made his fortune from rubber products, we were told of his interesting life. In England he was known as Albert Baker and was even a good friend of Queen Victoria!

During the 1860’s, huge changes took place with the opening of the Suez Canal and the appearance of steam ships which docked in Singapore. Changes included the increase in the number of Chinese opium addicts who sought temporary comfort to escape from daily hardships and backbreaking jobs. Even newspapers warned and illustrated how even industrious men fell victims to opium addiction. The British government was appealed to make the opium trade illegal, but to no avail, as it was the major source of income for them. It was not until the Japanese occupation that opium was outlawed completely.

Education also became a forefront of the country’s development. Locals began to influence the social and economic development of the country. A major benefactor of education was Tan Kah Kee, a billionaire who made his fortunes from rubber and pineapple trading. Eunos Abdullah, one of the few Malays educated at the Raffles Institution and the only Malay representative on the Straits Settlements Legislative Council, was an editor of Utusan Melayu, an influential Malay Paper.

A sense of nationalism was beginning to rise in the 1920s/30’s.The Malays started to question the right of the British rule as did the Chinese. The “Singapore Mutiny” led by Bengali-Muslim regiments showed that cracks were beginning to appear in the British Administration. The all-Muslim unit feared being sent to fight against their fellow Muslim Turks during World War I. 39 mutineers were executed in public, watched by 15,000 residents. However no one knew that an even worse “winter was coming”.

Shonan-to (“Island of the Light of the South” 1942-945)

In December 1941, Singapore was bombed by the Japanese and that was the start of World War II in Asia Pacific. After landing on the Peninsular of Malaya on 8th December 1941, they came down to Singapore by bicycles and defeated the British capturing Singapore and the Peninsular within 70 days. The British Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill called the stunning defeat “the biggest calamity the British Empire has ever seen”. Japan is a country with scarce important resources such as oil, gold and coal, all of which however were abundant in Malaysia and Indonesia. The main purpose of their invasion was to take over the huge British naval base in Singapore and get access to these natural resources.

The chart comparing the might of the Japanese armed forces and artillery and that of the British brought home how well prepared and equipped the Japanese were. In terms of army planes, tank regiments and soldiers, the British were outnumbered completely. The pride of the British navy battle ships, the Prince of Wales and the Repulse, were sunk at early stage of the war. The British resources were stretched due to the war in Europe. Airplanes were obsolete and not suitable to tropical conditions. Lieutenant-General Arthur Percival was forced to surrender in February 1942 faced with the fact that 1 million people, soldiers and civilians were crammed in the heart of the island with the Japanese having taken control of the water and food supply.

After capturing the island, the Japanese immediately started the Sook Ching (Cleansing) Massacre. Chinese aged between 18-50 suspected of being involved in anti-Japanese activities, boycotting Japanese goods, sabotaging Japanese companies and sending money to the Chinese in China to support their fight against the Japanese were all screened. Once they were identified to be involved, confirmed or otherwise, they were sent to remote areas such as Changi Beach where they were never seen again. It was poignant seeing one of the blue doors of Changi prison behind where soldiers were held, rail man’s whistle, watches, doctor’s stethoscope, eye glasses, pens of the victims of Sook Ching which were uncovered during the 1960s when there were lots of building works in the city outskirts. The belongings suggested women were victims as well as men. The Japanese admitted to 5,000 deaths but excavations suggest 25,000 victims.

Post-war Singapore (1946-Present)

The British returned in 1945 after the war. The 1940’s and the early 1950’s were tough days because of shortage of food, necessities, jobs, schools, etc. There were also natural disasters such as floods. Many were left homeless. Trade unions were formed and riots occurred all of which were threats to the British government. To deal with these problems, David Marshall, the first Chief Minister and a lawyer, sought for more freedom and subsequently self-government for the people of Singapore. Although his goal was not successful in early stages, Singapore gradually attained full self-government, which was finally granted in 1958. In the 1959 election, the Peoples’ Action Party led by Lee Kuan Yew won the polls in a landslide victory and he became the first prime minister. In 1963, Singapore joined Malaysia to form the Federation of Malaysia. However, the merger was an uneasy one. We watched a video of an emotional Lee in tears when Singapore was kicked out of Malaysia in 1965 due to the conflict of policies adopted by two countries. Singapore became independent on 9 August of the same year, now celebrated as National Day.

Many things such as new bank notes, national anthem and national service had to be created for the new nation to establish the identity of the Singaporeans. Economic and educational plans were also implemented, from establishing the Jurong Industrial Estate where multinational companies could invest in, to sending Singaporeans abroad for higher education. Our attention was drawn to an old Setron television set which stood as a symbol of success in transforming old industries to modern ones. The factory manufacturing the TV set was originally processing coffee beans from Indonesia. Supply was cut short due to Indonesia’s “unhappiness” with Singapore joining the Federation, thus forcing the factory to take a gamble to switch to manufacturing of electrical goods. An impressive feat was the social welfare systems such as house ownership scheme by the Housing Development Board, which built 10,000 units for the population within 5 years and improvement of infrastructures. Today Singapore is known as the City in a Garden with strong green policies of planting trees within specified distances contributing to the creation of images of a green city. Assisted by many capable men, Lee brought great success to the Singapore we see today.

We expressed our sincere gratitude to the two guides after the one and a half hour tour, which ended all too soon. The visit to the museum indeed gave us an insight to our neighbour country, Singapore.


National Museum of Singapore Guide

The Encyclopedia of Malaysia, Vol 16, The Rulers of Malaysia

もっと知りたいシンガポールー弘文社 History of Singapore

Visit to Asian Civilisations Museum – Part 3

Faith and Belief (Level 2)

by Hani Kamal

Level 2 has five galleries: Ancient Religion housed in two separate areas, Christian Art Gallery, Scholar Gallery, Islamic Art Gallery and Ancestors & Rituals Gallery. Both the Islamic Art and Ancestors & Rituals Galleries are under renovation, opening in December and early 2019 respectively.  In addition, there are two galleries on Level 2 for event space and as a special exhibition gallery.

The Ancient Religion Galleries hold a large collection of Hindu and Buddhist sculptures from Asia.  The displays found are from the second century up until the early twentieth century.  It also features art objects from Jainism, the third great religion of India.

ACM caption : Head of bodhisattva (Gandhara, around 4th century , Terracotta) The face and curly hair show the powerful influence of the West on the development of Buddhist art. Ancient Greece and Rome played a significant role in the development of Gandhara (in present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan). Bodhisattvas wear jewellery, and have beards and moustaches, which distinguishes them from figures of the Buddha. The jewellery seen here is typical of the Gandhara period. A circular indent on his forehead, called an urna, is a mark of nobility and illumination: it would originally have been inlaid with a precious stone. The sculpture was modelled with wet clay that was then fired. This technique allowed deep indentations and free forms, as evident in the beard and hair. Terracotta (literally, baked clay) allowed large statues to be assembled from several pieces.

Hinduism and Buddhism from India spread widely outside India including to Southeast Asia. The development of Hinduism and Buddhism then evolved combining localized features and animistic beliefs.  The concepts of the original religions took many forms. – some human, some divine with supernatural powers and some abstract. By the 7th century, the form of the images moved away from those found in India as sculptors started reflecting local characteristics. Hinduism and Buddhism were widely practiced at the royal courts. Kingships even took the form of Vishnu, adding merits to their power.  The Srivijayan era in the 7th century saw beautiful objects created depicting kings and their gods.  At the height of the Majapahit Empire, Java (13-15th century) developed its own traditions in art, merging two religions into one.

ACM caption: Buddha teaching (Gandhara, 3rd or 4th century, Schist) The hand gesture signifies the turning of the wheel of Buddhist law, and therefore indicates the Buddha teaching.The halo behind his head denotes his spirituality. Two small donor figures below stand in an attitude of adoration. Remnants of pigment indicate that the stone was originally painted. The drapery, strong muscular form, and facial features show influence from Western classical styles. But his yogic pose and eyes downcast in contemplation show the deep spirituality of the Buddhist religion.

Buddhism became popular between the 8th to 15th century in Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.  This influence lasts until today.

ACM caption : Walking Buddha ( Thailand Sukhothai, 15th or 16th century, Bronze) This image, full of fluidity and movement, was an innovation of the Sukhothai period. The dynamic posture, curvaceous arms with tapering fingers, and flowing hemline of the robe accentuate the sense of movement. He has a flamed top-knot (cintamani) and raises one hand in abhaya mudra (gestures of fearlessness). The sculpture embodies ideal features attributed to the Buddha – lotus petal-shaped eyelids, parrot beak nose, chin in the shape of the mango seed, and so on. This image probably refers to Buddha ‘s return from Tavatimsa Heaven, when he preached to his mother. It could represent the Buddha’s walking meditation in the garden after his enlightenment.

In China, Buddhism grew out of Indian beliefs and was practised alongside Confucius and Taoism.  Here, the famous male Avalokitesvara was personified in the form of Goddess of Mercy or Guan Yin, and became a female.  The virtue of a compassionate Guan Yin was more suited to a female than a male.

ACM caption: Shi Hou Guanyin China , 14th or 15th century Bronze. Acquired with funds from the Kwan Im Thong Hood Cho Temple.

The Christian Art Gallery features collections of art from China, Japan, Middle East, Southeast Asia and other countries.  Christianity was introduced by Catholic missionaries from Portugal and Spain, and later Dutch Protestants.  The art objects took a different form merging western ideologies with Asian techniques and materials.

ACM caption: Cross with the figure of Amitabha Nagoya, Japan, 1945-50 Iron –copper alloy

ACM caption: Virgin and Child Timor-Leste, 19th century Wood

The Scholars Gallery showcases Chinese beliefs and philosophy, strongly depicting Confucius teachings and Taoism practiced by scholastic officials. Here are collections of paintings, furniture and objects used by Chinese scholars depicting their lifestyles and their education.

ACM Caption: Ritual Food Vessel. This vessel was used to hold food offerings in ceremonies to honour ancestors and gods. An inscription identifies it as property of the duke of Rui, a region in present-day Shaanxi province. The circular bowl rising above a square platform recalls the symbols of heaven and earth in Chinese cosmology

For Part 1 of the ACM visit write-up, please see ‘Worth Visiting Again and Again’ 

For Part 2 of the ACM visit write-up, please see ‘Tang Shipwreck Gallery’

Visit to Asian Civilisations Museum – Part 2

Tang Shipwreck Gallery

by Saida Dasser

This Gallery, on the First Level of ACM (Asian Civilisations Museum), tells the story of trade through the Tang shipwreck. The story begins in the 9th century when it was already a part of an earlier era of globalization. So let’s learn more about this shipwreck.

The Tang Shipwreck, discovered off Belitung Island in Indonesia in 1998 has revolutionized the way we see the world in the 9th century. It provides an early evidence for the bulk trade between China, Southeast Asia and the Middle East during that period.

Trade was over land and sea, linking diverse parts of Asia. As ships could carry a much greater load than camels could, the maritime route from East Asia through Southeast Asia to South and West Asia became more important, with the Gulf serving as an important hub.

The sea trade made mass exports of heavy, fragile Chinese ceramics possible for the first time.

The ninth-century was dominated by two great powers: The Arab Abbasid (750 -1258) (covering Iran, Iraq, and surrounding regions) and the Chinese Tang (618–907) dynasties.

The ship

The ship itself was Arab by construction – an Arab dhow.  It consisted of wooden planks sewn together with rope. The construction technique indicated that the ship may have been built on the Arabian Peninsula, in a Gulf port, or perhaps on the coast of Oman, where similar vessels were still being built in the twentieth century. It had sailed all the way from the Middle East to China and was on its way home when it sank in the Java Sea.

What  was traded ?

Glass was brought from the Middle East, cotton from India, spices and wood from Southeast Asia, and ceramics and silk from China.

In the shipwreck, more than 60,000 glazed bowls, ewers, and other ceramic items were discovered – most from Changsha, as well as luxury objects made of gold and silver, bronze mirrors and ordinary objects belonging to the crew. Its contents were protected from erosion as they were packed in jars.

So let’s see some of these wares:

Green-Splashed Ware

The ewer below was made in China, probably in the Gongxian kilns, around the 830s. It is, perhaps, the grandest ceramic piece found in the Tang Shipwreck. The lozenge with flowers is a design developed in the Abbasid Empire. Chinese artists adopted the pattern, probably to export to Middle East customers. The overall form of the ewer is based on objects made in metal, as is evident from the upturned rim of the base, and the thinness of the handle.

Ewer – Stoneware, height 104 cm

Changsha Ware

The vast majority of the Tang ship’s ceramic wares came from the kilns of Changsha, in the central southern province of Hunan: 55,000 Changsha bowls and 2,500 other wares.

These wares seem to have been popular in markets overseas as well as in China itself. The motifs were painted in brown, green, using iron and copper oxide based pigments. One of the bowls had an inscription mentioning a summer’s day in 826. Drinking tea was very popular during the Tang dynasty and, instead of cups, these bowls were used to drink tea.

Changsha wares

Blue-and-White Plates

Three white dishes with a blue design were found in the shipwreck. These are among the earliest known Chinese blue-and-white ware. The cobalt used was most likely an import from Arabia-Persia and the motifs – one or two lozenges surrounded by foliage – were of Abbasid design.

left: made in China; right: made in Basra (Iraq)

Bronze Mirrors

Thirty-nine Chinese bronze mirrors, designed for trade, were found in the shipwreck. Many of them had blackened but were originally silvery. One side was polished smooth to provide a reflective surface, the other side was decorated with different motifs, such as flowers or auspicious animals.

An interesting piece among the mirrors was one that was almost a thousand years old by the time the ship sailed; it dates from the Han era (206 BCE – 220 CE). Another  antique piece dates from the Six Dynasties period (220–589 CE).

Bronze mirror

For Part 1 of the ACM visit write-up, please see ‘Worth Visiting Again and Again’ 

For Part 3, please see ‘Faith and Belief’

Visit to Asian Civilisations Museum – Part 1

Worth Visiting Again and Again

by Diana Daymond

Many of us have already visited ACM once, twice, a half dozen times. NO MATTER!!!. It’s time to head down to Singapore to enjoy the newly renovated treasure trove whose freshly curated galleries are bursting with artifacts you probably have not seen before.  Virtually all of ACM’s galleries tell stories shared by Malaysia and are sure to inspire our guiding.

This is the oldest part of Empress Place, the building housing ACM. It is its middle section, built between 1864-67. The building was constructed to house offices of the British Colonial Government and, hence, the building was simply known then as “Government Offices”.

In 2014 ACM announced an ambitious plan to build a modern new wing, develop a light filled entrance upon the Singapore River and create larger spaces where stories about artifacts and culture can flow into one another like the rivers and trade routes of South East Asia.  These large and lovely new galleries opened in 2017.

For museum docents, the curatorial ambitions of the new spaces are even more exciting.  In 2014 the initial vision was explained by Director Alan Chong:

“We’ve spent a lot of time thinking about how to present Asian art and culture in an interesting, new way. We thought it would be more interesting to reflect Singapore’s multiculturalism by looking at how these cultures connected, not only in the great port cities of Asia, but also how they interacted and blended, and communicated with each other, engaging in a cultural dialogue over thousands of year.” 1

The latest director Kennie Ting further developed the integrated approach and explained that the Museum is sifting from an ethnographic focus to one that pays more attention to art.

“What this means is not that we forget the cultural and historical significance of each object… but in the curation of the pieces here, we are also now focusing on the aesthetics, the elements of craftsmanship, design and tradition. In presenting only masterpieces from Asia, we say that in Asia, we have a very long tradition of excellent innovation and craftsmanship. We should be extremely proud of this heritage we have, particularly here in South-east Asia.”2

ACM Volunteer, Dr. Vidya Schalk, describing an ewer found on the Belitung Shipwreck, a shipwreck discovered off the coast of Belitung island laden with Tang Dynasty ceramics.

The practical realization of these curatorial visions are immediately apparent on each floor which are filled with artifacts and stories shared with Malaysia. The ground level flows through with the history and culture of South East Asian trade. The second floor shows how systems of faith and belief spread across South East Asia, with resulting cultural and aesthetic adaptions of religious art. In 2019 the third level will open focusing on the textile traditions of South East Asia, another shared focus.  Subsequent write ups will share details of the treasures to be viewed.

Muzium Negara is filled with far more artifacts and displays than can be shared in one tour. It can be energizing to re think your route through the museum using new threads of emphasis.  A few ideas: How might you structure a tour based on the ACM focus of aesthetics?  Trade focus?  Craftsmanship? Cultural and or religious adaption? Migrations of peoples?

If you are looking for some inspiration to change your tour, every corner of The Asian Civilizations Museum should provide enlightenment. The guides who visited just last month are already out of date. Since our tour the Islamic Galleries have opened and feature a magnificent Hornbill sculpture from Sarawak that the Docents of Muzium Negara are sure to appreciate.

1 April 18, 2014:

2The Straits Times: November 27, 2018: Asian Civilisations Museum to open 3 new galleries for Christian Art, Islamic Art, and Ancestors and Rituals

At the Ancient Religions Gallery on Level 2

For Part 2, please see ‘Tang Shipwreck Gallery’

For Part 3, please see ‘Faith and Belief’

A visit to Hoi An Museum, Vietnam

by Karen Loh

The ancient town of Hoi An lies thirty kilometres southeast of the city of Da Nang, Vietnam, on the northern bank of the Thu Bon River in Quang Nam province. Declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999, Hoi An was once an international port town where traders from China, Japan, Arabia, Persia and Southeast Asia came to trade during the Champa period (2nd – 15th century CE)  and later, traders from Europe during the Dai Viet period (15th – 19th century CE). Today, the town remains intact with more than 1,000 well-preserved building structures comprising architectural monuments, commercial and domestic houses, pagodas and temples. Hoi An has a total area of 60 square kilometres with a population of around 90,000 people.

Hoi An Museum

The Hoi An Museum is a building on its own with two floors of galleries housing artefacts, sketches and photographs from the pre and proto historic periods (ancient times to the 2nd century CE), the Champa period (2nd – 15th century CE), Dai Viet period (15th – 19th century CE), and the Resistance War against the Americans (1955 – 1975).

Left: one of the large burial jars in the gallery; Right: bronze bell from the Champa period

There are two galleries on the first level of the museum. One gallery displays numerous burial jars and urns in various sizes dating back 2,000 years while the other gallery has a collection of bronze bells and Vietnamese blue-and-white ceramics from the Champa period. It is believed that the Champa people founded Hoi An, which was originally called ‘Lam Ap Pho’ or Champa City. The Kingdom of Champa in Vietnam is considered the oldest in the Malay world dating to the 2nd century CE as the people practiced Malay culture and spoke Malayo-Polynesian language originally while the Cham language became the official language later. Hoi An was a very wealthy port between the 7th – 10th centuries CE, trading in spice and silk, exporting aloe and ivory.

Left: machine guns from the Resistance War; Right: a claymore mine

The gallery at the top floor exhibits artefacts from the Resistance War with the Americans. Many types of weapons and machine guns, parts of planes, bombs, clothing, torture instruments and even a trap of iron spikes can be seen here, supplemented by photos and information boards in Vietnamese.

A guided bomb

Left: iron spike trap made by the Vietnamese army. Right: pair of rubber sandals and shovel used for digging tunnels during the resistance

The topmost floor of the Hoi An museum is where visitors have the opportunity to get a bird’s-eye view of the city from above. The outdoor environment also provides a picturesque scenery for visitors should they want to snap a few pictures of the ancient town in all its charm. The visit to the museum can be completed within an hour as the museum is quite small and as written on one of their information boards; ‘only some symbolic artifacts and photographs are shown’.

Hoi An still retains its historical charm today

Photo of one of the streets in Hoi An c1950s

Petaling Street Heritage House

by Shirley Abdullah

Visit by Museum Volunteers, JMM on 19 July 2018

Our guide during the visit was the affable Chong Keat Aun who is the founder and curator of Petaling Street Heritage House. He is a writer and filmmaker and was a radio presenter for Radio Television Malaysia’s green channel, which is a Chinese language service.

Bright yellow facade of the Heritage House. Photo courtesy of Yow Wai

Chong spearheads a project that began in 2005 to conserve the history of Kuala Lumpur’s Chinatown quarter. The project gained momentum when Kuala Lumpur’s Mass Rapid Transit project affected the Chinatown quarter, and forced some of the residents to sell their shophouses to make way for the new MRT train station. This quarter is often referred to as Petaling Street, which is a generic reference to the popular shopping street. However, the quarter comprises several other streets such as Jalan Sultan, Leboh Pasar Besar, Jalan Yap Ah Loy and Jalan Tun HS Lee. The Petaling Street Heritage House is located at 196 Jan Tun HS Lee. Other prominent landmarks along this street include the Sri Mahamariamman Temple and the Guan Di Temple.

Restaurant at the ground floor. Photo courtesy of May

The Heritage House is in a two-storey pre-War shophouse that has been completely refurbished. At street level, it stands out with its bright yellow façade. On the ground floor is a restaurant that serves dishes from the seven Chinese dialect groups. It operates the restaurant as a means of raising funds in order to be self-sustaining as it does not receive any government support. The upper floor houses the current exhibition detailing the theatre development in Petaling Street.

Museum on the top floor. Photo courtesy of May

Chong explained that in Malaysia, there are seven dialects of the Chinese language spoken – Cantonese, Teochew, Hainanese, Foochow, Hokkien, Puxian and Hakka. However, in Petaling Street, Cantonese was the dominant lingua franca as most of the residents are descendants of migrants from Guangdong province in China. Chong derived much information from oral accounts of residents of Petaling Street, who had sold their shophouses or halted their business activities in the area when the MRT project began in 2010. Most of the artefacts on display were donated by these old folks from their personal collections. And some were even salvaged from backstreets when the residents discarded them when they moved out, oblivious to their intrinsic historical and cultural value!

Photo courtesy of Ong Li Ling

An old record of a Cantonese opera. Photo courtesy of Poh Leng


The focus of the Petaling Street Heritage House is the preservation of Chinese dialect songs and its musical heritage. A famous record store called Yan Kee was located on Petaling Street. When the owner passed away in 2010, her son donated 2000 LPs (long-playing records) circa 1950 to 1960 of Chinese opera to the Petaling Street Heritage House project. This collection is being digitalized into MP3 format and preserved. Students from New Era College are conducting research utilizing the collection and the Heritage House intends to establish an aural history archive.

Yan Kee record store plastic bag. Photo courtesy of Shirley

Yan Kee was also involved with providing radio scripts about operas to Radio Malaya and to Rediffusion, which was a subscription-based Chinese language radio service that was extremely popular in the 1960s to 1980s. The radio presenters would use the radio scripts to help listeners learn more about the characters and understand the plots of the operas.

An opera stage complete with its intricate hand-painted backdrop, a seating area and even a backstage dressing table used by the opera’s leading actress are on display, together with stage costumes and interesting stage props and even a dressing case which was used by travelling opera singers . The Cantonese opera singers of that time were mega stars and fan magazines prominently featuring them are also included in the collection.

Photo courtesy of Michelle

The booming tin-mining and rubber industries and the affluent Chinese business community fuelled the growth of Cantonese opera in Malaya. The Yan Keng Benevolent Dramatic Association was formed in 1917 and its Cantonese Opera Group arm actively promoted Cantonese opera in the country. They would bring in famous stage performers from China and Hong Kong. Teahouses such as Yen Lok and Seng Kee flourished in the early 1920s. Patrons would enjoy listening to famous Cantonese ballads while sipping their tea. During major festivals like the Mooncake festival, some of the leading opera singers would perform at these teahouses.

Dressing case. Photo courtesy of Yow Yai

Dressing case used by travelling opera singers. Photo courtesy of Josiane

Song lyric books of Cantonese opera known as Muyu Shu (which means Wooden Fish Book) are also on display. The reference to wooden fish comes from China where blind people traditionally sang these songs and used wooden blocks carved into fish shapes as percussion instruments. These books were preserved by Kai Chee Book Store in Petaling Street and were printed between 1920 and 1935. This was introduced by earlier migrants to South East Asia to express their feelings of homesickness. The lower income groups could not afford the luxury of spending time listening to music in a teahouse. To cater to the man in the street, some impoverished scholars copied and printed popular opera lyrics and songs for sale and this evolved into a variation of karaoke as a popular pastime for ordinary folks who would sing these songs themselves.

A full script with directions for lighting and props. Photo courtesy of Katherine

Opera watching and listening no longer remained the domain of the upper class following the emergence of Pu Changchun Opera Troupe and Madras Theatre at Petaling Street. The Madras Theatre was known as Chung Hwa Cinema Hall in Chinese.

Curator Chong Keat Aun with a red vinyl record. Photo courtesy of Ong Li Ling

An antique phonograph. Photo courtesy of Katherine

The unique feature of the Heritage House is its preservation of aural history. Chong played the recordings from 1946 of an opening opera piece originating from the Chin Dynasty commonly referred to as Welcoming the Generals (and officially as The Inauguration of the Six States Prime Minister!) which was always performed during the opening night of the Opera, as an auspicious gesture to bestow luck. Chong also played recordings of the narration by Dr Too Chee Cheong of his life’s recollections about his grandfather, his father and himself. Apart from being a medical doctor, Dr Too was a renowned composer and a poet, who has also translated classic Chinese poems into English. Dr Too’s grandfather, Too Nam, is well known among older Chinese in Malaysia as a follower and supporter of Dr Sun Yat Sen. Dr Too believed that his grandfather, Too Nam, who was a Chinese tutor to Dr Sun Yat Sen in Hawaii, strongly influenced the young Sun, who, later in life, became the Chinese revolutionary credited with establishing the Republic of China. Dr Too Chee Cheong passed away last year at the ripe old age of 93 years.

Props: platform shoes and an old vinyl for the Cantonese opera ‘Installation of the Prime Minister by the Six Warring States’. Photo courtesy of Katherine

At the end of the tour, we thanked Chong for his interesting tour and for his efforts in conserving the cultural history of Petaling Street.  The group also contributed financial donations on a voluntary basis, as the project needs support.

Photo courtesy of Hani

Tun Tan Cheng Lock Centre

by Ong Li Ling

I tagged along with the King’s College Alumni for a weekend tour of Malacca earlier this month. The highlight of the weekend was a walking tour conducted by Professor Johannes Widodo from the NUS School of Architecture. The tour started at the Tun Tan Cheng Lock Centre for Asian Architectural and Urban Heritage located at 54-56 Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock. A write-up on this Centre will be the first instalment of my “Professor Widodo Malacca Walking Tour” series.

Route taken during the walking tour. The Tun Tan Cheng Lock Centre is marked in green.

Tun Tan Cheng Lock was a Baba Chinese. He was a leading member of the Straits Community and was the first elected president of the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA). He contributed significantly in the field of education, social welfare and politics. The road was named to commemorate his many contributions.

The Tun Tan Cheng Lock Centre is located in a townhouse along Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock. It was almost demolished 10 years ago as there was a proposal to create a walkway from the Kota Laksamana parking area to Jonker Walk. The plan to demolish this building failed due to the intervention of local NGOs.

This building was used as a maternity clinic for Dr Ong Bak Hin (one of the first Malaysian doctors who graduated in England) in 1920, Yeoh Maternity home in 1955, Aik Siow Clinic in 1977 and in 1980 as a rest house and subsequently a storage warehouse for Syarikat Abdul, an antique junk dealer. The two shoplots were sold in December 1992 to Tay Kheng Soon, a Singaporean architect,  and they were finally purchased by Miss Agnes Tan and bequeathed to the School of Architecture NUS.

A 1605 Portuguese map of Malacca shows that there was a market place where this building currently sits.

In a map dating 1663,  the location of building is where the orange box is. It is close to the sea which is at the bottom of the map.

All the yellow beams in the ceiling are original, but the brown wood is a replacement because the original wood was rotten.

The wall of the building almost collapsed and had to be restored. After the plaster was scrapped off, the conservationists saw different types and sizes of bricks dating from the Portuguese, Dutch, British and Malaysian eras. The plaster was not reapplied as they want to let the wall tell the story of the building. The Breaking Line of the wall indicates the movement of this building and tells us that this building was not built at one go as there were extensions forward and backward from the core.

The Line on the brick wall shows the first facade of building when the surrounding area was still the sand and was near the sea.

The steps were built after they closed the connecting door. In the beginning the neighbouring houses were connected. The subsequent owners closed the connection and they then built the second floor.

The well was shared with the neighbours.

The hole in the wall was made when the building was used as a warehouse in the 1980s when it belonged to Syarikat Abdul.

This wall collapsed and was stitched with concrete but the concrete was not covered up so that students can learn how to stitch a falling a wall.

Conservationists experimented with various types of plaster so that they can learn which one is better for conservation.

The Pit is kept open to show that there is sand inside. This used to be a coastline. You can find seashells and corals.

A connection to the Chariot House next to the Royal Press was found.

A horse stable was found as evidenced from the horse bones buried. It is speculated that the horses were used to pull the chariots.

Roof tiles used in Malacca cannot be found in Malaysia anymore. However, similar ones can be found in Vietnam. The tiles are made by placing clay on the thighs. So the sizes are not even.

Professor Johannes Widodo and team want to turn this place into a conservation clinic to show that it is possible to do a sensitive conservation and not to turn everything into boutique hotels and cafes.

During the opening ceremony, the Malacca Governor was invited to officiate and he suggested calling this place 54-56. The contractor bought 4D and was delighted when he won the first prize!  He bought a 4-Wheel Drive with his winning money.

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